Avoid these mistakes in configuration management
In Part One of my article on big, bad mistakes in configuration management, I reviewed the dangers of using the wrong tools for the configuration management job. Provisioning management tools, application release automation tools and continuous integration tools each have their place in your DevOps toolchain. But they should not be used as a substitute for ongoing configuration management. In this article I am focused less on misusing tools and more on bad practices, limited thinking and short-sightedness that should be avoided.
Mistake No. 4: Direct Access to Production
This one may not bite you … until it does. I’ve worked with many companies where developers have direct access to Production. This is not good. And, in many cases, it is a violation of compliance policies. Please don’t take offense, my developer friends. You shouldn’t want direct access to Production. I find that 9 times out of 10, your code is not the problem—the configuration is the problem. However, you’re being asked to log directly into the server to do comparisons between your environment (where it worked just fine) and Production. This leads to the, “How did he fix it?” problem, and it leads to the dreaded typos and other manual errors. I’ve witnessed companies lose millions of dollars in a matter of minutes because someone logged directly into a server and made an incorrect configuration change.
The question is, How do you cut off direct access to Production? How do you quickly find configuration differences between environments without logging into the server? The answer is a good configuration management solution that quickly shows differences between the environments for all your tiers. This is easy when you’re doing file-to-file comparisons, but what about registry key comparisons, or WebSphere comparisons? Find a configuration management tool that gives you visibility fast, exactly when you need it, for the important parts of the stack that keep your applications running. And insist on a configuration management solution with robust RBAC (role-based access control) over what changes can be made, where and when they can be made, who can make them and even who can approve them.
Mistake No. 5: Leaving Your DBAs Out of the Picture
The majority of companies I work with have completely disconnected database and middleware teams—the DBAs don’t really know what the middleware team is doing and the middleware team has no visibility into what the DBAs are doing. I believe there are a couple reasons for this: people and technology. We won’t worry about the people aspect today, other than to say that each team thinks the other team is “quirky” J. From the technology aspect, traditional tools simply do not provide configuration visibility into both the middleware and the database tier. So the DBAs end up having one toolset, and the middleware team a completely different toolset. This prevents collaboration, orchestrated releases, and the complete configuration picture that’s needed to make sure your application is fully configured, performing, and running correctly.
This is a big problem. In fact 37 percent of survey respondents admitted that they relied on scripting and manual processes to determine which databases were used by which applications in their ecosystems. And another 38 percent admitted they don’t even have a way to determine this information. Talk about blindfolds! My advice is to find a solution that both middleware and database teams can use. That doesn’t necessarily mean the DBAs will replace their favorite tools, but they’re now involved in the process, allowing that collaboration and orchestration that was missing.
Also, if you use a single, integrated configuration management solution your management, middleware, OS and DBA teams will all have visibility into every aspect that makes the application run. The middleware team can see if there are schema changes that may be causing an application issue as opposed to spending hours looking for a middleware configuration issue they’ll never find, or vice versa. Having one unified tool cuts down on the mean time to diagnose because you can see all the tiers in one place.
Mistake No. 6: Focusing Only on a Single Part of the Stack
The previous “big, bad mistake” segues nicely into this one: focusing on just a single part of the stack. There are many tiers supporting your application, and we’ve touched on several in this series—namely middleware, database and OS. Within each tier you may be supporting different technologies. Some applications may be running on IIS with a SQL Server back end while others run on WebSphere with an Oracle back end. Then you have the operating system settings to worry about: making sure registry keys are set, system services have the right accounts, filesystem permissions are accurate, all the correct versions of Linux packages are installed, etc.
Based on a lack of comprehensive coverage up and down the application stack, many companies have chosen to explore configuration management tools for just a single part of it. These point tools tend to focus on the most business-critical applications, the one where they hit the most configuration issues or simply the one that’s most difficult to manage. This is not necessarily a bad thing to do, but take care not to be too single-minded. Try not to choose a configuration management solution that works well for one part of the stack but not others, or that works very well in one environment (Linux/Unix), but not very well in another (Windows). Managing these disparate point solutions, with maddening gaps and overlaps in coverage, can be exhausting.
Choose a tool that’s extensible to other parts of the stack, business or other teams. My suggestion is to make a list of all present and future technologies you use that need configuration management support. Divide them into different parts of the stack and then rank them from “most onerous to manage and/or most business critical” to “nice to have.” Refer to this list when evaluating configuration management tools so you don’t lose sight of the forest from the trees. Make sure the tool can support all your top items and ask about their road map for your “nice to haves.”